CRJ 305 week 2 QUIZ 1 If you were to argue that although a person with an IQ of 60 cannot be a world-renown physicist, s/he still has the freedom to choose within limits of what is physically, psychologically, and socially possible, you would be presenting which of the following positions? 2 Which of the following refers to circumstances (e.g., presence of mental illness) surrounding a criminal event that reduce, but do not eliminate, moral responsibility and the severity of punishment imposed? 3 Entertaining these assumptions brings us into the second of our two realms of theoretical ethicsÃ¢â‚¬â€metaethics. 4 A four-year-old child who shoots and kills another child would be considered culpable for her or his actions. 5 The third question concerns the challenge that determinism presents for the study of ethics and human behavior more generally. Does morality exist independently of human consciousness? 7 Modern-day determinism tends to be based in 8 If we eliminate free will completely, we would also be eliminating: 9 Which of the following is discussed in your text as a possible causal factor in the higher rates of aggression and violence we find in geographical areas that are the most heavily crowded? 10 Which of the following, though only in its infancy, may be the future standard for detecting dishonesty in police departments and courtrooms? 11 In simplest terms, determinism holds that: 12 While ample scientific research supports the existence of variables that potentially limit free will, there is very little (if any) real empirical evidence that human beings have free will. 13 A commonly cited reason in support of free will is simply the feeling of freedom, which suggests something as follows: When we make choices, we feel that have freely chosenÃ¢â‚¬â€we feel that we could have chosen or done otherwise if we had wanted toÃ¢â‚¬â€and, consequently, if we feel that we have made a choice, then we must have freely made that choice. 14 These two questions raise the issue and challenge of relativism in ethicsÃ¢â‚¬â€an important concern not only within ethics, but also within the realm of crime, law, and justice. (1) Are there eternal moral values, or are all moral values merely human constructions that vary by time and place? And (2) Do human beings, by nature, enjoy the sort of freedom that is necessary to make moral choices? 15 Self-defense and defense of others would be considered: 16 Choice, it could be argued, is the very cornerstone of ethics and morality. 17 When used as a criminal defense, involuntary intoxication would be classified as a justification for criminal wrongdoing. 18 Moral responsibility or blameworthiness that attaches to persons who freely and knowingly engage in wrongful actions is sometimes referred to as: 19 Metaphysics is a subfield of philosophy that asks such questions as, "What kinds Of things exist?" and "What is the nature of those things?" 20 If we argued that a person's decision to rob a bank was motivated by an unconscious desire to be punished for her previous sins, we would be making a deterministic argument.