PSY 0451 Week 4 Quiz | San Francisco State University
a. a test applies equally well to both men and women.
b. a measurement actually reflects what it is supposed to be measuring.
c. extraneous errors in an experiment undermine its reliability.
d. a test gives us the same results each time we measure it.
Which of the following is a limitation of projective tests?
a. Projective tests are relatively inefficient and expensive to administer.
b. Although projective tests discriminate between known groups, the content of the items may seem absurd to test takers.
c. Clinicians tend to find them relatively unhelpful despite their considerable validity.
d. Respondents uniformly hate taking projective tests because of their length.
According to the text, what is the central principle behind the use of S data?
a. People are the best experts on their own opinions and behaviors.
b. People are generally honest about describing their behavior.
c. Questionnaires can trick people into revealing private information about themselves.
d. People are often unfamiliar with self-questionnaires so they will usually provide reliable responses.
Which of the following is NOT likely to undermine the reliability of a survey?
a. aggregation of responses to different items
b. the immediate state of the participant
c. entering data into a database incorrectly after collection
d. the mood of the experimenter
Reliability is important to successful research, but every measurement involves a certain amount of error. Which of the following lists describes some factors that commonly undermine reliability?
a. deception, informed consent, blind studies
b. negative correlational values, low significance, Type I errors, Type II errors
c. lack of clarity in the conceptualization of a variable, long scales, random sampling
d. low precision, variation in the participant and environment, state of the experimenter
The Implicit Association Test (IAT) yields what kind of data?
Which of the following is an example of a construct?
a. a laboratory
b. the brain
d. a personality psychologist
Because any piece of L data can have many different causes, it is extremely difficult to directly connect life outcomes with specific personality traits. This key disadvantage to L data is referred to as
a. causal force.
b. intrinsic importance.
The biggest disadvantage of L data is that
a. people are able to lie when providing this data.
b. they are usually more related to social psychology than to personality psychology.
c. it is extremely difficult to establish connections between personality and life outcomes because life-outcome data in themselves are very subjective and unreliable.
d. it is extremely difficult to establish connections between personality and life outcomes because life outcomes can have so many causes.
Experiments and personality tests such as the Rorschach test are ways to collect
a. I data.
b. B data.
c. L data.
d. S data.
The fact that women are more likely than men to sign up for a study affects the __________ of the study.
Personality assessment refers to ________.
a. the measurement of any characteristic pattern of behavior, thought, or emotion
b. the selection of a group of individuals with the most unique temperaments
c. a treatment for personality disorders
d. the analysis and interpretation of genetic markers of personality
Which of the following is a disadvantage of I data?
a. They are simply counts and mathematical combinations of the behaviors the informant has seen.
b. Their accuracy is limited because individuals often behave differently in different contexts.
c. They expose a person's private, inner life without his or her consent.
d. They are not based on a large amount of information.
The main difference between state and trait reliability is that
a. states and traits have both the same measures of reliability and validity when measuring across time and situations.
b. states are consistent, giving reliable measurements across time and situations, whereas traits lack consistency and are unreliable across time and situations.
c. states lack consistency across time and situations, whereas traits produce reliable measures across time and situations.
d. traits are generally more valid measurements, whereas states are more reliable.
Informant-report data can best be defined as
a. information given by a participant about how he is feeling at some given point in the day.
b. concrete statistics about real-life outcomes based upon verifiable records.
c. data provided by other psychologists working on similar studies.
d. judgments by knowledgeable human informants of general attributes of the individual's personality made through observation.
According to the text, what simple example of L data is considered by clinical psychologists to be a potential indicator of psychopathology?
a. never being married by age 40
b. being fired from a job by age 30
c. an annual income below the poverty line
d. an arrest record by age 21
Generalizability allows us to do what?
a. write hypotheses for two separate experiments from different theories
b. draw the conclusion that some future attempt to exactly replicate an experiment will yield the same results
c. make a summary of the results of an experiment
d. apply our results to populations or situations outside of an experiment
Of the four types of data, which ones call for individuals to directly answer questions about themselves or other people?
a. informant reports and life outcomes
b. behavioral observations and self-reports
c. life outcomes and behavioral observations
d. informant reports and self-reports
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of B data?
a. Direct observations are easily quantifiable.
b. Psychologists can construct situations to elicit particular behaviors.
c. Direct observations require little in the way of psychological interpretation.
d. Direct observations can be made with extreme precision, as in the case of reaction times.
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of self-report data?
a. It is easy to collect.
b. Participants always provide accurate accounts of their personalities.
c. It is cost-effective.
d. The person being questioned is the best expert on their own behavior.