PSYCSS156 Test 2 Quiz | Mohawk College

PSYCSS156 Test 2 Quiz | Mohawk College

Test 2 Results for Mark Abdelmessih

Question 1

Answering a multiple-choice question such as this one is a:  

·         recall memory task.  

·         recognition memory task.  

·         relearning memory task.  

·         savings memory task.


Question 2

According to the serial position effect, if you learn this list: dog, apple, tree, pen, sun, rose, nap, you would have more difficulty remembering which of the following words?  

·         apple  

·         pen  

·         dog  

·         nap


Question 3

Forgetting the answers to items on this quiz that you knew when you entered the classroom can best be explained as:  

·         retrieval failure.  

·         encoding failure.  

·         consolidation failure.  

·         motivated forgetting.



Question 4

A loss of consciousness from a grand mal seizure, a blow to head or a car accident is likely to lead to  

·         retrieval failure.  

·         encoding failure.  

·         consolidation failure.  

·         prospective forgetting.



Question 5

Which memory system is a permanent or relatively permanent storage area?  

·         semantic memory  

·         short-term memory  

·         long-term memory  

·         sensory memory



Question 6

Loftus and Palmer (1974) showed participants a film of a car accident. They were then asked "How fast were the cars going when they ____ each other?". Which of the following statements is/are true regarding their findings in this study?  

·         The wording of the question affected their estimates of speed of the car.  

·         The wording of the question affected whether they remember seeing two dead bodies at the scene of the accident.  

·         The wording of the question did NOT affect their estimates of speed of the car.  

·         Both A and B are true.


 Question 7

Which of the following memory processes refers to the way in which information is entered into memory?  

·         Retrieval  

·         Reminiscence  

·         Storage 

·         Encoding


 Question 8

Eyewitness testimony has been found to be:  

·         extremely accurate.  

·         more accurate than the legal system assumes.  

·         highly subject to error.  

·         easily dismissed by jury members.


Question 9

The curve of forgetting shows that memory loss:  

·         occurs at a fairly steady rate over a month's time. 

·         begins to occur about 3 to 4 hours after learning.  

·         occurs most rapidly at first and then levels off to a slow decline.  

·         occurs slowly at first and increases steadily over a month's time.


Question 10

Which of the following would not be stored in semantic memory?  

·         The chemical formula for water  

·         Games played at your sixth birthday party  

·         The definition of "carnivore"  

·         The capital of France


Question 11

When psychologists say that a person's memory is a reconstruction, they mean that the memory:  

·         is false.    

·         was repressed and then recovered.  

·         has been pieced together and is probably partly accurate and partly inaccurate.  

·         is an accurate account of an event.



Question 12

In your online module, you were asked to watch a video about Ronald Cotton. Which of the following statements is TRUE?  

·         He was wrongly convicted of double homicide after faulty eyewitness testimony given by bystanders standing 20 meters away from the murder.  

·         He was wrongly convicted of rape after faulty eyewitness testimony by the victim herself.  

·         He was wrongly convicted of homicide after faulty eyewitness testimony, and after being exonerated by DNA evidence, he murdered the witness who put him behind bars. 

·         He was wrongly convicted of aggravated assault after being convicted on the basis of faulty DNA evidence.



Question 13

The capacity of short-term memory is just right for a  

·         six-character postal code  

·         person's name  

·         digital clock  

·         seven-digit phone number


Question 14

H.M. has been unable to store new information in long-term memory since his surgery in 1953. H.M. has a profound case of  

·         repression.  

·         retrograde amnesia.  

·         Korsakoff's syndrome. 

·         anterograde amnesia.



Question 15

Children who have eidetic imagery  

·         are often withdrawn and quiet.  

·         have a better long-term memory than other children.  

·         usually retain their ability well into adulthood.  

·         can retain the image of a picture for several minutes.


 Question 16

The observation that memory recall was found to be best when the subjects were in the same state for both learning and testing even when that state was intoxicated is best explained by the phenomenon of  

·         the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.  

·         hyperamnesia.  

·         state-dependent learning.  

·         context-dependent imagery.


Question 17

An extremely vivid memory of the circumstances under which we learn of an event that is highly shocking, surprising and emotional is called  

·         a flashbulb memory.  

·         an eidetic imagery memory.  

·         a photographic memory.  

·         a déjà vu memory.


Question 18

What brain structure plays an important role in the formation of new memories?  

·         The hippocampus  

·         The parietal lobe  

·         The thalamus  

·         The hypothalamus


 Question 19

In your online module, you were introduced to a study by Dr. Elizabeth Loftus. She showed that it was possible to create a false memory in the laboratory. Which of the following events did she suggest happened to them in their childhood (that in fact did not happen)?  

·         they had eaten grasshoppers  

·         they were lost in the mall  

·         they sat in strawberry jelly  

·         they had won a giant yellow banana at the fair


 Question 20

Eunice is 75 years old. Compared to when she was 35, if her sleep patterns have been typical, she will most likely experience which of the following?  

·         going to bed later at night, and getting up later in the day  

·         lighter sleep  

·         deeper sleep  

·         fewer awakenings in the night


Question 21

The continuous stream of perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and sensations of which we are aware is referred to as  

·         behaviour analysis. 

·         unconscious processing.  

·         automatic processing.  

·         consciousness.


Question 22

The more men drink, the  

·         less able they are to perform sexually.  

·         more careful they become in making moral judgments.  

·         better they are at fine motor skill activities.  

·         less sexually aroused they are.


 Question 23

When Su Mei told Pearl about her dream, Freud would say that Su Mei was relating the ________ of her dream. 

·         manifest content  

·         superficial aspect  

·         day residue  

·         latent content


Question 24

The addictive potential of a drug is greatest if it is  

·         smoked.  

·         snorted.  

·         injected.  

·         taken orally.


 Question 25

Antoinette, a high school student, has become apathetic, is unable to remember recent events, and has little motivation. Her grades are beginning to decline as well. Based on the description in the text, which of the following drugs could account for her condition? 

·         nicotine  

·         caffeine  

·         marijuana

·         LSD



Question 26

Research has shown that hypnosis is useful for ______________. In your online notes, you watched a video that showed _____________.  

·         pain control; a woman under hypnosis that did not feel pain when her arm was submerged in freezing cold ice-water.  

·         drug addiction; a group of drug-addicted men that no longer used cocaine after only 10 sessions of hypnosis.  

·         goal attainment; a man that started an exercise regimen after being given the suggestion "Exercising is awesome" while under hypnosis. 

·         No such video was ever shown in class, and hypnosis is not useful for pain control, drug addiction or goal attainment.



Question 27

Narcolepsy is to _________ as insomnia is to ____________.  

·         REM attacks; chronic poor-quality sleep  

·         awaking to breathe; REM attacks  

·         REM attacks; REM rebound  

·         awaking to breathe; chronic poor-quality sleep



Question 28

Behaviours and other states that usually occur only when you are awake are called ________ if they occur when you are asleep. 

·         insomnias 

·         parasomnias 

·         sleep apneas  

·         narcolepsies


 Question 29

The increase in the percentage of REM sleep to make up for REM deprivation is called  

·         sleep appreciation.  

·         REM accommodation.  

·         REM rebound.  

·         REM accrual.


 Question 30

Arden often stops breathing for several minutes during sleep. He suffers from  

·         sleep apnea.  

·         narcolepsy.  

·         somnambulism.  

·         hypersomnia.


 Question 31

What can you do to get a better night's sleep?  

·         Try varying the time you go to bed-early one day, late the next.  

·         Drink a few alcoholic drinks before you go to bed.  

·         Go to bed at the same time every night and stay there until you fall asleep.  

·         Set your alarm clock and wake up at the same time every day.


 Question 32

At about the age of four, Erik began awakening from naps and in the middle of the night, screaming and disoriented. His condition is  

·         a prelude to more serious sleep disturbances, like sleepwalking.  

·         a permanent sleep disorder closely related to narcolepsy.  

·         a result of childhood sleep apnea.  

·         a sleep terror that he will likely "grow out of."


Question 33

Which of the following occurs during REM sleep?

·         slower and irregular respiration  

·         lower blood pressure  

·         paralysis of the large muscles  

·         decreased brain activity



Question 34

Which drugs boost energy, heighten alertness, and increase activity?  

·         barbiturates  

·         stimulants  

·         hallucinogens  

·         alcoholic beverages


Question 35

Using classical conditioning, some advertisers attempt to create pleasant feelings in us when they make their commercials. How do they do this?  

·         They tell us the truth about the product in a nice way.  

·         They show us the product followed by the name of the company.  

·         They pair a neutral product with attractive people or places.  

·         They reinforce us with a rebate when we buy the product.


Question 36

Carrie fed her cat canned tuna that was opened with an electric can opener. Even when she was merely opening a can of corn, her cat responded physically as if it were about to be fed. In this example, the unconditioned stimulus is the  

·         corn.  

·         tuna.  

·         sound of the electric can opener.  

·         eating behaviours.


 Question 37

In Pavlov's original research, dogs heard a tone and then had meat powder placed in their mouths which caused them to salivate. After many pairings of the tone and meat powder, they would salivate when the tone was presented alone. In this case, the meat powder is an example of 

·         an unconditioned response.  

·         a conditioned response.                 

·         a conditioned stimulus.  

·         an unconditioned stimulus.



Question 38

An important aspect of the definition of learning is that the learned behaviour  

·         is a result of experience.  

·         is present in all adult members of the species.  

·         must be adaptive for the organism.  

·         must be observable.


Question 39

The gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus is called  

·         generalization.  

·         extinction.  

·         discrimination.   

·         spontaneous recovery.


 Question 40

Morris fell from his bicycle and was badly bruised. Now, whenever he sees any bicycle, Morris becomes very anxious. Morris' anxiety can best be explained on the basis of  

·         generalization.  

·         discrimination.  

·         spontaneous recovery.  

·         extinction.


 Question 41

In Overmeier and Seligman's experiment on learned helplessness, the dogs in the CONTROL group  

·         jumped over the barrier to the safe area of the cage. 

·         could not learn to escape the shocks.

·         refused to move, even when prompted. 

·         took all the shocks the experimenters gave them without moving.


 Question 42

Bud, a new employee, watches an experienced employee perform a specific task, and then Bud tries to repeat the task. The changes in Bud's behaviour can best be explained on the basis of  

·         classical conditioning.  

·         operant conditioning.  

·         latent learning.  

·         observational learning.


 Question 43

Learning to perform behaviours that produce positive outcomes and to avoid behaviours that yield negative outcomes is a basic characteristic of  

·         stimulus generalization.  

·         classical conditioning.  

·         operant conditioning.  

·         flooding.


 Question 44

Extinction in operant conditioning involves 

·         withholding reinforcement.  

·         punishment.  

·         positive reinforcement.  

·         negative reinforcement.


 Question 45

Which of the following is NOT one of the factors identified in the text that influence operant conditioning?  

·         immediacy of reinforcement  

·         level of motivation  

·         consistency of punishment

·         magnitude of reinforcement


 Question 46

According to the partial-reinforcement effect, responses are less likely to be extinguished if  

·         the vast majority of the responses have been reinforced.  

·         only a small proportion of responses have been reinforced.  

·         none of the responses have been reinforced.  

·         all the responses have been reinforced.


 Question 47

Which of the following does NOT increase the strength of the conditioned response in classical conditioning? 

·         increasing the intensity of the unconditioned stimulus  

·         always following the conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus  

·         presenting the conditioned stimulus a considerable time before the unconditioned stimulus  

·         more pairings of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli


 Question 48

Punishment is most effective when  

·         it is of a moderate intensity and applied on a variable schedule.  

·         it is given immediately after the undesired behaviour.  

·         it is relatively mild.  

·         it is applied on a variable-ratio schedule.


 Question 49

Negative reinforcement  

·         decreases the probability of a response.  

·         is less effective than positive reinforcement.  

·         is another term for punishment.  

·         increases the probability of a response.


 Question 50

A procedure whereby subjects are given reinforcers for performing behaviours which get closer and closer to some target behaviour is called 

·         shaping.  

·         tracing.  

·         observational learning.  

·         flooding.

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