Information Processing Cycle

Information Processing Cycle


Computer

 

·         an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own
memory unit, that can accept data (input), manipulate the data according to specified rules (process),
produce information (output) from the processing, and store the results for future use. The term is
used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a system.

 

Information Processing Cycle

 

·         computers can perform four general operations: input, process, output, and storage.

 

Data

 

-       collection of raw facts, figures, and symbols, such as numbers, words, images, video, and
sounds given to a computer during the input operation.

 

Information

 

·         is data that is organized, meaningful, and useful. Computers manipulate data to
create information

 

Computer Program (software)

 

·         detailed set of instructions that tells the computer exactly what to do. The computer executes one program instruction after another until the job is complete.

 

Primary Components of a Computer

 

-       input devices, the processor (control unit and
arithmetic/logic unit), memory, output devices, storage devices, and communications devices.

 

System Unit

 

-       box-like case which houses the processor, memory, and storage devices.

 

Input Device

 

·         any hardware component that allows you to enter data, programs, commands, and
user responses into a computer. examples: keyboard, mouse, digital camera scanner, scanner, and
microphone.

 

Central Processing Unit (processor)

 

-       interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate
a computer. The processor is made up of the control unit and arithmetic/logic unit.

 

Control Unit

 

·         interprets the instructions.

 

Arithmetic/Logic Unit

 

·         performs the logical and arithmetic processes

 

RAM (memory)

 

·         consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed
by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processed data. Memory
usually consists of one or more chips on the motherboard in the computer.

 

ROM (Read Only Memory)

 

·         is "built-in" computer memory containing data that normally can
only be read, not written to. ROM contains the programming that allows your computer to be
"booted up" or regenerated each time you turn it on. Unlike a computer's Random Access Memory
(RAM), the data in ROM is not lost when the computer power is turned off. The ROM is sustained
by a small long-life battery in your computer.

 

Motherboard (system board

 

·         is the main circuit board in the computer to which many electronic
components are attached.

 

Byte

 

·         a memory location that stores one character

 

 

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