involves the sharing of information

   involves the sharing of information



·         involves the sharing of information between two or more people to achieve a common understanding about an object or situation
Successful communication occurs when the person receiving the message understands it in the way that the sender intended
communication does not end with the message sent

Step 1: Sender - the person who wishes to communicate a message. To convey information, the sender must first encode it
Step 2: Encoding - involves translating information into a message or a signal. The encoded message is then sent through a communication medium, or communication channel, to the intended receiver. Communication media are numerous and include writing in hard copy, texting, face-to-face verbal exchanges, verbal exchanges without face-to-face contact and e-mail.
Step 3: Once the message has been received, the receiver must decode it. In decoding, the receiver perceives the message and interprets its meaning.
Step 4: To ensure that the meaning the receiver attaches to the message is the same as the one intended by the sender, feedback is necessary. Feedback is the process through which the receiver encodes the message received and sends it or a response to it back to the original sender.

feedback - two-way communication
no feedback - one-way communication - may have an entirely different interpretation


Interpersonal Communication


·         involves a direct verbal or nonverbal interaction between two or more active participants


Interpersonal Communication : Formal versus Informal Communication


·         Formal communication - follows the formal structure of the organization (e.g., superior to subordinate) and entails organizationally sanctioned information (slow process)

Informal communication involves spontaneous interaction between two or more people outside the formal organization structure
In addition, managers may find that the informal system enables them to reach more members than the formal one. Another benefit of informal communication is that it can help build solidarity and friendship among associates
RUMORS ( entail unsubstantiated information of universal interest or uncertainty) AND GOSSIP ( is information that is presumed to be factual and is communicated in private or intimate settings)
People are thought to engage in gossip in order to gain power or friendships or to enhance their own egos
Sometimes used for improvement in performance or exit

reduces the focus on work, ruins reputations create stress and sometimes leads to legal problems

Ways to Avoid:
managers are advised to provide honest, open, and clear information in times of uncertainty
should be addressed by those in a position to establish the truth
placing restrictions on idle chatter
360-degree evaluations- require inputs from bosses, peers, and any direct reports


Communication Styles


·         Six Dimensions:
1. Expressiveness - the amount and vividness of a person's communication. Descriptors include verboseness, conversational dominance, humor, and unpretentiousness
2. Preciseness - the care that is put into communication. Descriptors include thoughtfulness, substantiveness, structuredness, and conciseness
3. Verbal aggressiveness - the degree to which personal opinions and positions are advocated. Descriptors include authoritarianism, derogatoriness, angriness, and unsupportiveness
4. Questioning orientation - the degree to which curiosity is emphasized. Descriptors include inquisitiveness, unconventionality, argumentativeness, and philosophicalness
5. Emotionality - the reflection of stress or sadness in communication. Descriptors include worrisomeness, tension, sentimentality, and defensiveness
6. Impression management - the degree to which calculated guardedness dominates a person's communication. Descriptors include charm, inscrutableness, ingratiation, and concealment

An individual's style should be appropriate to the type of work that he or she is doing


Communication Media


·         richness describes the amount of information a medium can convey
Richness depends on
(1) the potential for immediate feedback
(2) the use of multiple cues
(3) the use of natural language (as opposed to numbers)
(4) the extent to which the communication has a personal focus

Face-to-face verbal communication is the richest medium
If your friend does not understand the message or interprets it inaccurately, she can let you know either verbally or nonverbally
In the interaction, you use multiple cues, including tone of voice, semantics (the words that are used), facial expressions, and body language
it is easy to create a personal focus in the message

Communication Media: (most rich to least rich)
1. Face-to-face communication
2. Video conferencing (such as Skyping)
3. Phone or radio communication
4. Electronic messaging (such as e-mail and instant messaging)
5. Personally written text (such as letters, notes, and memos)
6. Formal written text (such as reports, documents, bulletins, and notices)
7. Formal numerical text (such as statistical reports, graphs, and computer printouts)

Tradeoff between cost and richness
equivocal vs unequivocal
important and when they feel the need to present a positive self-image
extraverted vs introverted
organizational norms


Communication Technology


·         Modern technology allows organizations and their members to communicate quickly, across any distance, and to collaborate more effectively than ever before
For organizations to remain competitive, they need to constantly keep up to date on modern communication technologies

In many cases, organizations have been creating blogs to provide information related to advertising and corporate decisions and to seek information related to consumer thinking in the general marketplace

Virtual social worlds have also been added to the technology arsenals of a number of companies
virtual worlds offer real-time interactions where people exist in a three-dimensional setting as self-generated representations of themselves (i.e., avatars)
sophisticated interactive systems that are being used by companies such as IBM for conferences, team meetings, and training

new communication technologies can also create issues for organizations and individuals -
misuse of new technology ( technology make it easier to leak private or secret information to an unintended audience, often with unintended consequences)
technology failure - technology fails and redundant systems are not in place
information overload
personal privacy


Nonverbal Communication


·         facial expressions, tone of voice, personal appearance (dress), contact or touch, and various mannerisms

Three Categories:
Body Language - kinesics - facial expressions, the use of hands, arms, and legs, posture
Paralanguage - how something is said, such as how tone of voice, pitch of voice, and silence are used
Gestures - convey specific meanings (such as making a circle with your fingers to indicate "okay" or shrugging your shoulders to indicate "I don't know")

leaky behavior- those that we cannot control - people may be more likely to express their true feelings through nonverbal means rather than through verbal means, which are easy to control

it provides information about the person's attitudes and emotional or mental state, useful form of feedback, whether a person is lying, cultural differences ( different norms), but facial expressions mean the same


Organizational Communication


·         is to facilitate the achievement of the organization's goals


Organizational Communication - Communication Networks


·         represent patterns of communication (who communicates with whom)
they correspond to the structure of communication flows in the organization and they affect coordination, innovation, and performance

Sparse networks - there are few connections among members
Dense networks - there are many connections
Centralized networks - all communications pass through a central point or points, so that one or a few members of the network control most of the information exchanges
(Traditional organizational hierarchies, where subordinates communicate mostly or only with their bosses, who in turn communicate with their bosses, represent centralized networks. Companies in which units do not communicate with one other but only with a central headquarters, which then simultaneously coordinates all the unit)
Decentralized networks - no single member of the network dominates information exchanges

To some degree, the effectiveness of a network depends on situational factors such as type of work and goals of the unit or organization, network structure affects individual outcomes


Organizational Communication - Direction of Organizational Communication - Downward Communication


·         Communication that flows from superior to subordinate
Is necessary to provide job instructions, information on organization policies, and performance feedback
Inform those at lower levels about the organization's goals and about changes faced by the organization
Downward communication, however, is frequently deficient - lower-level managers and associates often complain about the lack of information on goals and changes being made in the organization


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