Social and evolutionary theories of depression

Social and evolutionary theories of depression

Which of the following is described in the video as a consequence of Debra's severe depression?


·         She begins to withdraw from her husband, children, and friends.


Which of the following conclusions, based on Debra's story, can be drawn about people who experience depression?


·         Depression is a damaging disorder that can affect even people who seem to have everything.


Who, of the following, falls within the group most likely to have the lowest rate of bipolar disorder?


·         Daniel, from Korea, whose family has always eaten a lot of fish


The weight of scientific evidence (Schechter & Grether, 2008) indicates that thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative that has been used in vaccines, ____.


·         plays no part in the development of autism spectrum disorder


Social and evolutionary theories of depression and loneliness suggest that these states might promote an individual's survival by ____.


·         protecting people from additional negative interactions by reducing their social activities.


Frank and Marie have been married for over 40 years. The marriage started out with very little conflict and Frank was happy to please Marie. However, as the years have passed no matter what Frank does, Marie criticizes him: his appearance, his opinions, his cooking, the gifts he buys for her, and all of his other actions. At this point Frank is feeling more and more discouraged despite his best efforts to make her happy. This is likely a case of ____.


·         learned helplessness


When a person experiences depersonalization or derealization disorder they might feel as though


·         they are watching their behavior from outside their bodies.


During a speed dating session Anders consistently describes himself as a "charming, aggressive, carefree person who is impulsively irresponsible but good at handling people and at looking after number one." Under DSM-5, which of the following is most likely true?


·         He would likely be categorized as having antisocial personality disorder.



Among college students, suicide is the ____.


·         second leading cause of death


Panic disorder is more common in children who have experienced parental loss or separation and in adults who have recently experienced significant, stressful life events. These are ____ explanations.


·         social


Candice is intensely sad most of the day, has trouble concentrating, and has lost some of her appetite. She has started to skip most of her classes and can't maintain eye contact with others. She calls her college's mental health helpline and says, "I'm so worried about my grades that my stomach hurts. I don't know what to do." Based on the text's continuum from normal behavior to severely disordered behavior, Candice's status would be considered ____.


·         psychological disorder, less severe


Who would be exhibiting normal behavior under the statistical definition of abnormality?


·         A resident of the United States with a motor vehicle (for every 1,000 residents, there are approximately 800 motor vehicles)


A resident of the United States with a motor vehicle (for every 1,000 residents, there are approximately 800 motor vehicles)


·         All of these (repetitive reliving of the traumatic experience, feelings of guilt over surviving the trauma, regret over not being able to do more during the traumatic experience)


What is one benefit of incorporating virtual reality into PTSD treatment?


·         It allows each patient to receive customized treatment based on their individual experience.


What is one reason why researchers would think it's important to measure PTSD symptoms by using a combination of these 4 different methods?


·         Researchers need to determine if outward signs of improvement are accompanied by an internal sense of well-being.


What do patients experience in the virtual reality environment? (PSTD)


·         They see, hear, and smell familiar scenes from the war.


How does this type of therapy proceed? (PTSD)


·         The intensity of the experience gradually increases after patients become familiar with the virtual environment.


How can you summarize the treatment process Dr. Reger describes in the video?


·         Seeing the situation over and over in a safe environment reduces its emotional impact.


Barbiturates were once commonly used to treat anxiety; however, they are not ideal because they ____.


·         are highly addictive


In what ways is rational emotive behavioral therapy confrontational?


·         The therapists openly criticize their clients' thinking.


How has managed care affected contemporary treatments for psychological disorders?


·         Decisions about treatment strategies are often made by untrained insurance company personnel.


Lately, Jameson finds himself struggling emotionally during the holidays. He feels increasingly frustrated with making travel plans to his parents' house, gift shopping, and sitting at holiday dinners trying to make light conversation with relatives. Jameson's therapist challenges him to think about his past visits home, during which Jameson experienced positive emotions. She asks whether Jameson's "all-or-nothing" view of holiday visits as happy or unhappy is a rational approach: "Is it realistic to think that a holiday visit home should be 100% positive"? What type of therapy does this scenario illustrate?


·         Cognitive


The Gottman's five step approach to reprocessing past hurts in therapy with couples include: feelings they had, subjective realities, triggers, taking responsibility and apologizing, and


·         constructive plans


Jeffrey is serving a 25-year prison term for conspiracy to commit murder. While incarcerated, he is diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. The prison psychiatrist prescribes barbiturates for Jeffrey. What is the most likely reason for the psychiatrist's decision to prescribe barbiturates?


·         To decrease Tom's aggressive behavior


Who popularized the use of frontal lobotomies in the United States by performing the procedure on thousands of individuals between the 1930s and 1950s?


·         Walter Freeman



A psychologist using a humanistic approach views society as a ____.


·         source of psychological discontent


The discovery of which class of drugs after World War II changed the treatment of anxiety dramatically?


·         Benzodiazepines



Deborah is terrified of driving over bridges, but when her daughter moved to a new house across a major river, she is determined to get in her car and drive over the bridge to visit her daughter. Her therapist uses a technique in which Deborah's old irrational fears of bridges are replaced with rational thoughts about the safety of bridge construction. This technique is referred to as ____.


·         cognitive restructuring



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