1 The best case scenario in the prisoner's dilemma - the most favorable outcome for all parties involved - is produced through cooperation and trust.

2 Which of the following refers to a form of human motivation whereby our decisions and actions are motivated primarily (if not exclusively) by our own interests?

3 Psychological egoism is a prescriptive argument, whereas ethical egoism is descriptive.

4 Which of the following hypothetical attitudes most closely resembles the notion that life is a "zero-sum game"?

5  Altruistic acts are those:

6 To willingly accept some cost to ourselves in order to ensure that those who violate laws and social norms suffer consequences for their behavior is referred to as:

7 Ethical egoism argues that our motivation for moral behavior should be our own rationally derived interests.

8 If the similarity-leniency hypothesis were true, which of the following would also (likely) be true?

9 Based on Axelrod's "tit for tat" simulation, the decision-making approach which best serves our own long-term interests is to exploit the kindness of others.

10 Which of the following, based in research indicating gender differences in responses to moral dilemmas, suggests that we reserve a greater role for compassion, interpersonal relationships, and concern for and responsiveness to the welfare of others in our moral reasoning?

11 A non-zero-sum game might be described as one with the possibility of a "win-win" outcome, rather than a "win-lose" outcome.

12 If we claim that a professor giving everyone in the class an "A" on the next exam is not an act of kindness or generosity but is best regarded as that professor taking delight in demonstrating his own power, we are offering an egoistic explanation.   

13 The notion of moral development implies that some beliefs, values, and ways-of-thinking about moral issues reflect a more advanced and desirable form of ethical judgment.

14 Which of the following terms refers to the process of making an effort to understand how each person involved in a situation perceives it and, further, imagining how each person would feel if placed in the others' position?

15 Natural law theorists might argue that a law is unjust if it has which of the following characteristics?

16 Reasoning such as, "killing is wrong because it is against the law" or "abortion is wrong because the Bible says so" is characteristic of the law-and-order orientation and stage of moral development.

17 Psychological and ethical egoism are explanations of human behavior that emphasize the role of __________________ in decision-making.

18 When we embody a "wholeness" or, in Plato's words, "inner balance" in our personal and professional lives which comes from choosing and acting with consistency and in light of a conception of justice and the good life, we could be said to live and work with:

19 Carol Gilligan's work utilizing the "Heinz Dilemma" revealed that males tend to resolve moral dilemmas using impartial principles, while females tend to focus on finding alternative solutions that take into account the needs of all people involved.

20 Racial and ethnic minorities now represent the majority of the prison population in the United States.

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