Argument from ignorance

Argument from ignorance

Affirming a disjunct


·         A or B; A; therefore not B. To be on the cover of Vogue Magazine, one must be a celebrity or very beautiful. This month's cover was a celebrity. Therefore, this celebrity is not very beautiful.


Affirming the consequent


·         if A, then B; B, therefore A. If Bill Gates owns Fort Knox, then he is rich. Bill Gates is rich. Therefore, Bill Gates owns Fort Knox.


Denying the antecedent


·         if A, then B; not A, therefore not B. If it is raining, then the grass is wet. It is not raining. Therefore, the grass is not wet.


Appeal to probability


·         Something can go wrong. Therefore, something will go wrong.


Argument from fallacy


·         All cats are animals. Ginger is an animal. Therefore, Ginger is a cat. You have just fallaciously affirmed the consequent. You are incorrect. Therefore, Ginger is not a cat.


Base rate fallacy


·         John is a man who wears gothic inspired clothing, has long black hair, and listens to death metal. How likely is it that he is a Christian and how likely is it that he is a Satanist?

Conjunction fallacy


·         Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations. Which is more probable? Linda is a bank teller, or Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement.


Epistemic fallacy


·         Lois Lane believes that Superman can fly. Lois Lane does not believe that Clark Kent can fly. Therefore Superman and Clark Kent are not the same person. NOTE: knowing is not certain like being.


Existential fallacy


·         One example would be: "Everyone in the room is pretty and smart". It does not imply that there is a pretty, smart person in the room, because it does not state that there is a person in the room.


Argument from ignorance


·         "There is no evidence of aliens, and therefore, aliens do not exist"



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