Massachusetts Bay Colony governor

     Massachusetts Bay Colony governor 

Anne Hutchinson


·         She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639. Puritan.


John Cotton


·         Criticized the Church of England, fled to Massachusetts Bay Colony, defended the government's duty to enforce religious rules -- betrayed Ann Hutchinson. Puritan.


Henry Vane


·         Massachusetts Bay Colony governor -- follower of Ann Hutchinson. Puritan.


John Calvin


·         a religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society. Puritan.


Martin Luther


·         a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices. Catholic then Lutheran.


John Smyth


·         Early Separatist who in 1609 was influenced by Anabaptists and started the English Baptist Movement. Anglican and then Baptist.



Charles Chauncy


·         opposition to the Great Awakening
sharply critical of Edwards and Whitefield
emphasizing too much biblical scriptural side. Calvinist.


George Whitefield

·         English clergyman who was known for his ability to convince many people through his sermons. He involved himself in the Great Awakening in 1739 preaching his belief in gaining salvation. Was Anglican and then helped found Methodists and was evangelical.



Jonathan Edwards


·         American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758) -- displeased with the youth whom he thought were acting wild. Congregationalist Protestant.



John Locke


·         English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property. Calvinist.


Thomas Jefferson


·         Jefferson's Bible took out all of the miracles and focused instead on moral and historical narratives. Deist.


William Lloyd Garrison


·         Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.


The Grimke sisters, Sarah and Angelina


·         Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement. Episcopal to Quakerism.


Lydia Maria Child


·         an American abolitionist, women's rights activist, opponent of American expansionism, Indian rights activist, novelist, and journalist. Calvinist, then Unitarinist.


Catherine Beecher


·         A female reformer that pushed for female employment as teachers; still embraced the role of a good homemaker for women; an example of the fact that not all women were pushing for radical reforms. Presbyterian.



John Smith


·         founder of Mormonism


Ann Lee


·         Founder of the Shakers


William Miller


·         He said that the lord was coming around 1843, but when he didn't he said that he'd done the math wrong and then said that the lord was coming around 1844, but once that year passed he quickly lost his followers


Benjamin Rush


·         Republicanism, environmentalism, education reform, free slaves but keep them separate (believed they had a disease which made their skin darker), was Presbyterian, but in the 1790s he cut ties because he didn't believe they were helping. Presbyterian then Universalist


Lyman Beecher


·         Presbyterian clergyman, temperance movement leader and leader of the Second Great Awakening of the United States. Presbyterian.


Timothy Dwight


·         They preached immediate repentance of the sin of any personal involvement in and support of the slave system, Congregationalist minister. Congregationalist.


David Walker


·         He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt. evangelical Christian


Sylvester Graham


·         American clergyman whose advocacy of health regimen emphasizing temperance and vegetarianism found lasting expression in graham cracker. Presbyterian


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